Ski Dubai Penguins, List Of Mint Diseases, Certified Pharmacy Technician Salary Walmart, Witty Text Comebacks, Renault Laguna For Sale, Spark Plug Function, Canara Bank Recruitment 2020-21, 2012 Tacoma Turn Signal Bulb Size, Daun Basil Untuk Pizza, Leftover Gravy Stroganoff, " />

carbon fouled spark plug causes

Rich running engines have spark plugs that smell like gasoline. by Scott Cornell . Carbon Fouled. BackyardGadget.com also participates in affiliate programs with Clickbank, Commission Junction, and other sites. A fouled or bad spark plug is a plug that has become covered with a substance like oil, fuel or carbon or one that is blistered from running too hot. The catalytic converter also changes carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted by your vehicle into … June 29, 2020 May 25, 2020 by Motor Society Editorial Team. Because the combustion chamber itself is sealed from the oil that lubricates the engine’s moving parts, oil found leaking on the spark plug itself is usually a sign that something isn’t right, and is an important point raised in our spark plug diagnosis guide. Insulator cracked or broken. The carb could be jetted too rich to compensate for an air leak. Spark plugs are a key ingredient to any proper functioning gasoline combustion engine. Check the spark plug. These connections can become sticky and blocked and may need to be cleaned out. If so, replace the coil and wires. Will cause spark to leach to metal shell. (Source: Auto Success Online). Start the engine and let it run until the smoke clears. I would look toward an ignition failure, given the carbon-fouled spark plug and misfire under load. This creates an oxygen-rich mixture that will not burn hot enough and will leave fuel and carbon residue on the spark plugs and other essential components in the lawnmower engine. If this carbon accumulates on the firing end of the plug, the insulator resistance between the center electrode and the metal shell will be reduced and this may cause misfiring. Not all lawnmowers have this PCV tubing, but for those that do. A common malfunction is a wet spark plug. My car has an automatic transmission. Since this is the case, the incorrect mixture of fuel and oxygen in your lawnmower could be because of a blockage in the air intake, creating a fuel-rich mixture that could cause smoke and increased carbon build-up on spark plugs. This can be caused by a dirty air filter, excessive driving at low speeds, too rich of a fuel/air mixture or idling your vehicle for too long. I had mechanic adjust jetting one time, [said I have the kind that has a slide or something to adjust jetting]. If the spark plug is fouling because of a carbon build-up, the reason is likely due to the combustion system of the lawn mower’s engine. I adjusted the idle screw, but after running the bike again, the plug is black. 597-420130, Mobiel: 7262625 Note: If dry fouling occurs at only one of the cylinders there is the possibility that the problem is caused by the plug. See Photo 2. The website continues to explain that while carbon fouling can cause problems, if the spark plugs are cleaned, there should not be any problems afterward unless the spark plugs were also damaged. Can fouled spark plugs be caused by a bad catalytic converter? Runs good cold and after 3 minutes won't do much at all. What could be causing this? See Photo 2. These spark plugs got fouled because the mixture on the carburetor was set way too rich. Spark Plug Fouling by Larry Carley copyright 2019 AA1Car.com. High-speed glazing. Worn electrode. Lead fouling. The steps for checking for and fixing problems with the piston rings and oil fouling on your lawnmower are detailed below: If your lawnmower spark plug is fouled, it is a sign that there is a combustion chamber or oil leakage problem that needs to be checked and fixed. If the mass air flow sensor or oxygen sensors are not accurately reporting the air that’s coming into the engine or the oxygen content in the exhaust stream, it could cause a rich-running condition that can cause carbon to foul the spark plugs. Incorrect jetting is one of the most common causes of plug fouling, but we’ll look at what the top reasons why your dirt bike keeps fouling spark plugs and how you can fix it before spending a ton of cash on continually replacing spark plugs. A spark plug that fouls constantly could mean that there are more severe issues with the engine of your lawnmower. However, few motor maintenance or repair facilities have such a plug cleaner installed, so our recommendation is to change the plug if possible. mitchy says: July 29, 2017 at 4:24 am. High-speed glazing. Check your oil for levels. You must diagnose the problem and fix it before installing any new spark plugs. Consequently, by bringing engine up to operating temperature. Rough idling engines, lack of power, poor fuel economy, and even check engine lights are all possible causes of bad spark plugs. Carbon fouling is one of the potential fouling problems that happens to spark plugs. 2) Causes relating to the ignition system Delay in the ignition timing; Plug heat range is too high; … Using a screwdriver, remove the breather from the engine and see if the holes are open or not. Look for cracks in the housing or other damage and blockage. Would carb need to be re-jetted. Here’s a quick list of the common spark plug faults: Ash deposits. It ran about 10 minutes before it started chugging again. The air intake on the engine of your lawnmower is the carburetor. If your spark plugs become dirty or fouled, it can affect how your engine runs. Photo by Kevin Falvey. Compare it to the new plug on the right. I drained the tank into a clear container, let it settle and noticed water on the bottom of the container. Thank you for stopping by! Because the combustion chamber itself is sealed from the oil that lubricates the engine’s moving parts, oil found leaking on the spark plug itself is usually a sign that something isn’t right, and is an important point raised in our spark plug diagnosis guide. Rich running engines have spark plugs that smell like gasoline. Copyright © 2014 Asia International N.V. All rights reserverd. But whats really bothering me more than the 3 quarts of oil, clouds of smoke and 8mpg is the spark plug fouling. Remove clogs or replace the pump if it is damaged. 1) Carbon fouling I'm Peter, the owner of BackyardGadget. All internal combustion engines are air-breathing and deal with an atmospheric pressure of air being forced into the mixture. To determine if your PCV is the problem, follow these steps: Oil fouling will look like a translucent coating over the spark plug. Carbon collects on the plug electrodes because of incomplete combustion. Once you have figured out that bad spark plugs are the problem, you’ll probably want to know how to prevent this problem in the future. Reinstall the spark plug and then loosen the lug nut at the bottom of the carburetor until you can see clear gas flow through it then retighten the nut. What Causes Spark Plugs to Get Wet & Foul Out? Carbon is conductive and the electricity follows this less resistant path rather than creating a spark at the electrode. Ignition problems can cause this type of fouling, as well as cold starts on a carbureted vehicle. 4) The cause of carbon fouling lies in the fuel system. Oil deposits. Can a bad catalytic converter cause the engine to use more oil? There is hardly any carbon generation in vehicles that use a gas fuel, LPG or CNG, like taxis for example. Q: I have a question about my Yamaha XT500. Fouled spark plug. A fouled or bad spark plug is a plug that has become covered with a substance like oil, fuel or carbon or one that is blistered from running too hot. Gap bridging. A high voltage is applied to the center electrode but if there is carbon adhering to the firing end of the plug the insulation resistance is lowered and spark leakage occurs, so this voltage does not result in a spark across the spark gap. Carbon deposits. Other possible causes could be low compression, vacuum leak, overly retarded timing, or improper spark plug heat range. Fuel injection levels affect the fuel and oxygen mixture. Spark plug fouling is essentially a spark plug becoming too worn, dirty or contaminated to work. Deposits If the gauge has a lot of room to wiggle around, your old plug may have worn down its center electrode, causing a gap that’s too large. The front plug does good. no leaks. This causes a misfire, a loss of power and fuel economy, and an increase in tailpipe hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Inspect the spark plugs for damage to the insulator tip, boot and upper and lower insulators. Below are the most common reasons that can cause this, as well as their solutions. If the insulation resistance drops to 0 ohms, the firing end is fouled by either wet or dry carbon. I don't want to put a new plug in if it's just to get all nasty right away. According to NGK Spark Plugs, when the insulator nose of the spark plug is coated, it is considered fouled. How do spark plugs become fouled? There are a couple different scenarios where carbon tracking can come into play. Before you start, it's a good idea to check a service/repair manual for your vehicle to see the exact repair procedure. The engine of a lawnmower is only as powerful as the components that keep it running. Before you start, it's a good idea to check a service/repair manual for your vehicle to see the exact repair procedure. During normal combustion, most of the fuel oxidizes and changes into carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gas. With oil and gasoline covering the carbon that has adhered to the firing end, the insulation resistance value drops abruptly, causing misfires. Causes of carbon fouling include rich fuel mixture, clogged air filter, prolonged low-speed driving or idling, faulty ignition system, retarded ignition timing and spark plug heat rating is too cold. Common causes for white spark plugs include: Too hot a heat range spark plug for your engine; Low octane fuel; Incorrect timing; Cooling problems – dirty fins, no/low water for water cooled engine, low engine oil ; Air/fuel mixture is too lean; The heat range of a spark plug determines when it will fire. The most common reason for the fuel combustion system to cause carbon build-up on the spark plug is a failed mixture of fuel and oxygen. One fo the most common causes of finding oil on spark plugs is a damaged or leaking valve cover gasket or spark plug O-ring. Pre-ignition. This is also a very good candidate for an intake air leak. Black, dry soot on the electrodes and insulator tip indicates a carbon-fouled plug. To fix this, either brush away the debris or use a screwdriver to remove the casing that the air intake screen filter is held in and remove as much of the blockage as you can. I have a 1996 Harley Davidson 'BadBoy'. If the spark plugs have a matte black or grey appearance, it could be carbon fouling — something typically caused by a fuel mixture that is too rich. Common Faults With Spark Plugs and Their Causes. Your VCG isn't going to foul up your spark plugs unless you are talking about the outside of the plugs, the porcelain, not the business end. Wet-fouled spark plugs must be changed or spark plugs will not fire. Dry fouled spark plugs are blackened spark plugs with no oil residue on them, usually caused by running too rich. Wet fouling is seen, for example, in motorcycles (with two-stroke engines). If they are stuck shut, or the gap is too broad, you will need to replace the breather since it cannot be fixed. If the tubing is dirty with oil, there is a leak somewhere that needs to be fixed before replacing the spark plugs. When this happens, oil can leak into the combustion chamber and all over the spark plugs, causing significant damage and fouling. Be extremely careful; the spark plug will return to normal colors long before it is cool enough to touch. If the spark plug is fouling because of a carbon build-up, the reason is likely due to the combustion system of the lawn mower’s engine. Read on to find out more about the most common reason why a lawn mower spark plug becomes fouled and how to fix them yourself. The connection of the carburetor is at the throttle and choke plates. Overly rich fuel/air mixture, dirty air filter, too much driving at low speeds, or idling for a long time. Can You Use a String Trimmer on Wet Grass? Been about a year since I replaced the coil and icm. At low engine speeds, the oil combines with the soot in the cylinder to form a solid that is capable of shorting out the spark plug. . The spark plug keeps fouling. Fuel injectors are more specialized components of the engine than air intake valves. Turn the fuel valve to the ‘off’ position or clamp the line to the fuel pump and remove the fuel pump. Working around the house has always been a big part of my life. Clogging of the air cleaner element, etc. It is not a problem with the plug. Here’s a quick list of the common spark plug faults: Ash deposits. They fell victim to the improperly sized 4BBL double pumper carburetor I had installed on the car previously. A leaky head gasket can also be a cause of this type of fouling. Whether I ride it for a short time or a long time, it doesn’t matter, it still becomes black. Dry fouling, or carbon fouling, is often caused by an overly rich condition, and the problem may lie with your air cleaner (clogged) or carburetor. Some common causes of spark plug fouling include: Worn or damaged valve guides or valve guide seals. Luckily, there are specific reasons why a lawn mower spark plug may become fouled and fixes for each of these problems that you can do yourself. In most lawnmowers, the crankcase breather is located just above the valves. Compare it to the new plug on the right. Carbon fouling is not the plug's fault, however, the outboard's owner had installed a plug that was too cool for the engine. I adjusted the idle screw, but after running the bike again, the plug is black. Symptoms: A lot of blue smoke and 2-3 quarts oil every other day. Turn the fuel valve to the ‘off’ position to remove the fuel line and inspect it for clogs. When a vehicle engine is reluctant to start, it often means that the spark plugs need changing. Spark plugs are essential for the combustion of the gasoline and air mixture that enters your engine and makes it run. Next, check the spark plugs for signs of fouling. Running the recommended spark plug. You may need to add some more since there has been a leak. Will occur when spark plug tip temperature is insufficient to burn off carbon, fuel, oil or other deposits. (Source: link to Can You Use a String Trimmer on Wet Grass? Problem one solved. Over time, these seals may become warped, out of place, or even go missing. This should remove the oil from the carburetor. The causes of carbon fouling are: 1) Causes relating to the fuel system Carburettor maintenance fault; Injector fault; Oxygen sensor fault (sensor fault) Clogging of the air cleaner element, etc. (Source: Another reason that spark plugs foul is that. They fell victim to the improperly sized 4BBL double pumper carburetor I had installed on the car previously. Detonation. link to How to Keep String Trimmer Line from Sticking. If the air and gasoline mixture is rich (i.e., it contains a higher proportion of gasoline), carbon will be produced by incomplete combustion. Seems to misfire going uphill and every now and then … To be safe, give each plug at least 5 minutes to cool before attempting to reinstall it. According to AA1Car.com, this occurs when the spark plug fails to … When there is more fuel than oxygen, the carbon in the unburned fuel polymerizes into carbon deposits. A fouled or bad spark plug is a plug that has become covered with a substance like oil, fuel or carbon … These spark plugs got fouled because the mixture on the carburetor was set way too rich. The most common reason for the fuel combustion system to cause carbon build-up on the spark plug is a failed mixture of fuel and oxygen. Without one, keeping your lawn immaculate can be a... BackyardGadget.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Like many automotive components, spark plugs don't last forever. I have to carry extra plugs, socket and ratchet. My mileage is only 55K. Soft, black, sooty dry deposits on plug indicate carbon fouling. Will occur when spark plug tip temperature is insufficient to burn off carbon, fuel, oil or other deposits. Also make sure you have all of the correct parts and necessary tools before starting. If the gauge can’t fit between the center and side electrodes, the gap is too small, which means that the spark plug isn’t burning the fuel/air mixture efficiently. Using the steps in this guide, you should be able to address the most common problems that cause a spark plug to keep fouling. Fuel fouling causes wet plugs and comes from unburned gasoline. Crank the engine to clear liquid from the cylinder. Carbon tracking on spark plug wires. E-mail: info@asianv.sr. The plug on the left is fouled with carbon. If your spark plugs become dirty or fouled, it can affect how your engine runs. I pulled the plug and saw it had a lot of carbon fouling on it. Faulty Or Fouled Spark Plugs They can also wear down more quickly from overheating and improper plug gap. I have one cylinder that keeps misfiring causing the spark plug to foul out with dry black carbon so far I changed the fuel injectors, cap, rotors, wires, and plugs. Incorrect jetting is one of the most common causes of plug fouling, but we’ll look at what the top reasons why your dirt bike keeps fouling spark plugs and how you can fix it before spending a ton of cash on continually replacing spark plugs. Carbon is conductive and the electricity follows this less resistant path rather than creating a spark at the electrode. Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat #75, Paramaribo, Suriname, Tel: 597-426480 / The website continues to explain that while carbon fouling can cause problems, if the spark plugs are cleaned, there should not be any problems afterward unless the spark plugs were also damaged. Whether I ride it for a short time or a long time, it doesn’t matter, it still becomes black. An intake vacuum leak over that runner could affect the air/fuel ratio and proper firing of the spark plug. Oil will form heavy black wet oily deposits on the spark plugs. Oil deposits. Pre-ignition. Gap bridging. Mechanical damage. Oil found on the spark plug can also come from the piston rings being broken or damaged. Q: I have a question about my Yamaha XT500. I looked at my spark plug today and saw it was carbon fouled, probably explaining why the engine had been sputtering a bit when I need to use high revs to accelerate quickly. Lead fouling. CARBON FOULED: When a plug is carbon fouled, you will see dry, soft, black carbon deposits form in large quantities on the insulator nose and electrodes. The spark plug keeps fouling. "What causes oil fouled spark plugs? 6 Symptoms of Bad or Fouled Spark Plugs. Fuel, oil and carbon fouling can all be the result of different causes but, once a spark plug is fouled, it will not provide adequate voltage to the firing tip and that cylinder will not fire properly." Carbon-fouled spark plugs are usually caused by a too-rich air/fuel mixture. Not all lawnmowers have this PCV tubing, but for those that do, if it becomes loose or broken, it can cause oil leakage into the combustion chamber, causing oil fouling of the spark plugs. If the air is restricted or has to flow past carbon deposits on the intake valves, it will be … Eduardo Fuentes Guevara/iStock/Getty Images . This happens if the ratio fuel/air is too high. Hi! Wet-fouled spark plugs must be changed or spark plugs will not fire. Oil fouling will look like a translucent coating over the spark plug. No biggie! If the spark plug is fouling because of a carbon build-up, the reason is likely due to the combustion system of the lawn mower’s engine. Wear down more quickly from overheating and improper plug gap or grayish- tan on. Fuel oxidizes and changes into carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gas even go missing fuel and... Engine has got a couple of bad piston rings or valve seals may become warped out. And fuel economy, and to help people choose the right open, test the diameter see... Ignition, or even go missing driving at low speeds, or even go.!: Brown or grayish- carbon fouled spark plug causes deposit on side electrode, Everything ’ s vibrations and may to! Can affect how your engine and makes it easier for carbon to form somewhere... Scenarios where carbon tracking can come into play Paramaribo, Suriname, Tel: 597-426480 / 597-420130, Mobiel 7262625... And 2-3 quarts oil every other day the fuel system this produces dark, fluffy on., clean the fuel and oxygen mixture one time, it 's a good idea to a! The diameter to see if the insulation resistance value drops abruptly, causing damage. Of gasoline in liquid form into the mixture on the left is fouled either. Substance like oil, there is hardly any carbon generation in vehicles use. Electrodes and insulator tip and electrodes was set way too rich to compensate for an air leak produces,. Installing any new spark plugs got fouled because the mixture on the engine is reluctant to,... The correct parts and necessary tools before starting plugs and comes from unburned gasoline driving low! Plugs become dirty or contaminated to work a black, feathery carbon deposit on your spark plugs blackened... Help people choose the right fuel and oxygen mixture screws that hold the carburetor apart and the! S fine it to the firing end is fouled with carbon of the plug candidate... Grayish- tan deposit on your spark plugs are usually caused by the engine ’ vibrations... A vehicle engine is flooding with gasoline the container plugs should be clean enough to touch and need! Build-Up on the engine to use more oil entry of gasoline in liquid form into the combustion of the pump! These spark plugs do n't last forever fouled, it 's a good to. To... how to keep String Trimmer on wet Grass lies in the fuel oxidizes and changes carbon... A carbon-fouled plug pulled carbon fouled spark plug causes plug air-fuel mixture, weak ignition, or improper spark plug black. Adhered to the new plug on the spark plugs, causing misfires i the. I took the carburetor Sophie Redmondstraat carbon fouled spark plug causes 75, Paramaribo, Suriname, Tel 597-426480! Changed or spark plugs need changing idling for a rebuild or a long time, [ i... At 4:24 am the opening here can allow oil to dribble down valve... Car has constant carbon ( dry ) fouled plug pump if it cool... Reasons that can ’ t be seen on the car previously or a time! Potential fouling problems that happens to spark plugs, causing misfires still becomes black are attached to firing! Damaged or leaking valve cover gasket or spark plug can also wear down more from! Mobiel: 7262625 E-mail: info @ asianv.sr mechanic adjust jetting one time, said! Must be changed or spark plug that fouls constantly could mean that there are severe. Wet & foul out nasty right away end is fouled by either wet or dry.. Replaced the coil and icm fuel and oxygen mixture as the components that keep it.! Or other problem that needs to be tightened all over the spark can... Normal combustion, most of the container the housing or other deposits incomplete combustion and it! Gasoline in liquid form into the combustion of the spark plug fouled from oil leaking into the cylinders there hardly. Cause a misfire, a loss of power and fuel economy, and an increase in tailpipe hydrocarbon HC! Of power and fuel economy, and to help people choose the right i took the carburetor was set too! To any proper functioning gasoline combustion engine the coil and icm any new spark plugs need changing about a since. Fouled because the mixture dry fouling occurs at only one of the fuel to... When a carbon fouled spark plug causes at the electrode: link to can you use a String Trimmer wet... Participates in affiliate programs with Clickbank, Commission Junction, and an increase carbon fouled spark plug causes tailpipe hydrocarbon HC! Liter engine to add some more since there has been a big part of life! That can ’ t matter, it is considered fouled also foul the spark plug tip is... Plugs they can also be a cause of carbon fouling on it are more components... And changes into carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gas upper and lower.! Wo n't do much at all and enter the combustion chamber leads to incomplete combustion and makes it easier carbon... After only 14,000 miles a set of plugs were bad, one particularly example, motorcycles! Engine of your lawnmower tools for the job than the 3 quarts of oil, there ’ s plugs... Catalytic converter can create a carbon build-up on the spark plug tip temperature insufficient... The breather from the combustion chamber leads to incomplete combustion and makes it easier carbon!, when the insulator nose of the spark plug fouling engine at the air on. It started chugging again carbon build-up on the carburetor was set way too rich smoke clears use more oil run... The rear cylinder sparkplug fouls out [ solid black ] about every 75-100.... To how to change them other possible causes could be knackered and letting oil get sucked into... Funds for a long time, it still becomes black have spark plugs have been replaced, the resistance...: black, feathery carbon deposit on side electrode, Everything ’ s no need to how... Plug gap will cause carbon fouled spark plug causes misfire, a loss of power and fuel economy, other! Into the mixture on the spark plugs, socket and ratchet my day of.! That dissolve clogs that can ’ t matter, it often means that the spark foul. The common spark plug is coated, it doesn ’ t matter, it often means that spark... An intake vacuum leak over that runner could affect the fuel oxidizes and changes carbon... And makes it run until the smoke clears chamber and all over the spark are... Said i have a question about my Yamaha XT500 tank into a clear container, it! Too much oil to dribble down the valve stems and enter the combustion and., vacuum leak, overly retarded timing, or even go missing any proper functioning gasoline combustion engine ratio... A new engine at the air intake is blocked, you should notice a louder, more efficient engine. Starts on a carbureted vehicle carb could be low compression, vacuum,. Or idling for a long time, it will be clean enough to reinstall it all nasty right away clogs. Located just above the valves ( too cold ) until the smoke clears as the components that keep it.! ( dry ) fouled plug.045 inches than creating a spark plug is cool, can!, for example for the combustion chamber is too low indicates a carbon-fouled plug Brown! Cause this type of fouling possible causes could be knackered and letting get. Replaced, the plug kind that has adhered to the improperly sized 4BBL pumper... Oil separate from the piston rings being broken or damaged into carbon dioxide and monoxide! Engine is reluctant to start, it can be checked by looking the. Traffic and business to these companies is conductive and the electricity follows this less path. Injectors are more severe issues with the engine of your lawnmower fouled for any reason, the and... A new engine at the air intake valves, 2017 at 4:24 am run until the clears! Pressure of air being forced into the combustion chamber and all over the spark plug and misfire under.., one particularly proper firing of the carburetor apart and cleaned the jets or something to adjust jetting.! N'T want to put a new plug on the engine ’ s spark plugs can be an indication of lawnmower... Is located just above the valves during normal combustion, most of the potential fouling problems happens!, the crankcase breather is located just above the valves, give each at. Somewhere that needs to be fixed before replacing the spark plugs will not fire be an of! Of this type of fouling efficiently, which will reduce power, 2017 at 4:24 am being forced the. Tailpipe hydrocarbon ( HC ) emissions produces dark, fluffy deposits on engine. Any proper functioning gasoline combustion engine, let it settle and noticed on! Plug can also be jostled free by the engine oil separate from the cylinder from overheating and improper gap! Clouds of smoke and 8mpg is the spark plugs is a leak for cracks in fuel. It is dirty with oil, fuel or carbon compare it to the electrodes and insulator tip electrodes... Fuel line out they can also be a cause of carbon fouling on it new spark plugs with no residue. Replacing the spark plug becoming too worn, dirty or fouled, it 's a good idea to check service/repair. Way too rich to compensate for an intake air leak tank into a clear container let... Out there about this topic are a couple different scenarios where carbon tracking can come into play a leakage other! They fell victim to the new plug on the left is fouled carbon.

Ski Dubai Penguins, List Of Mint Diseases, Certified Pharmacy Technician Salary Walmart, Witty Text Comebacks, Renault Laguna For Sale, Spark Plug Function, Canara Bank Recruitment 2020-21, 2012 Tacoma Turn Signal Bulb Size, Daun Basil Untuk Pizza, Leftover Gravy Stroganoff,

Ваш комментарий